SPM's and inflammation

23 Jul 2019 10:13 AMLicensee Person
SPM's and inflammation

SPM's and inflammation

Exclusively suppressing inflammation may not be the best practice. When it comes to inflammatory response, intensity and duration determines the difference between physiological and pathological inflammation. Pro-inflammatory signalling cytokines are needed how ever if too high and prolonged can lead to disease. Likewise, too little of an inflammatory response can prevent the triggering of the necessary physiological inflammation. Inflammation shouldn't be seen as bad; however excess can be a problem.

Unfortunately, during aging, inflammatory triggers accumulate, leading to more and more small areas of inflammation occurring and not been adequately addressed. This increases the net inflammatory load and what used to be a simple inflammatory response, is much worse. What is termed drive age-related chronic inflammatory disease. 

Initiation of inflammation includes the recruitment of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMSs) into the triggered tissue and the release of cytokines leading to an inflammatory response. This is beneficial in short controlled amounts as it promotes antimicrobial defence. However if this continues and excessive PMNs continue to infiltrate the tissue may for example, become damaged and necrotic. This is termed chronic inflammation.

The resolution phase should follow shortly after the initial inflammatory phase to prevent progression to chronic inflammation. This occurs when proinflammatory immune cells switch into anti-inflammatory and pro-resolution mode. The body then starts the clean up process and initiating tissue remodelling to repair the damaged tissue.

SPMs were termed in 2000 when it was found that metabolites from polyunsaturated acids, particularly Omega 3 are key signalling molecules that coordinate the resolution of phase of inflammation. SPMs (specialised pro-resolving mediators) also include several classes of lipid mediators.

SPMs - Pro-resolving and Anti-inflammatory

Collectively SPMs perform a myriad of actions. 

  • Promote resolution by reducing PMN infiltration - cleaning up inflamed tissue
  • Encourage resolution by regulating macrophage polarisation - helps return body to balance
  • Reduce inflammation by decreasing proinflamator and increasing anti-inflamatory mediator production
  • Increase the clearance of inflammatory mediators.
  • Modulate the activity of anti-inflamatory mediators

Basically,unlike many pharmaceutical anti-inflammatories which are also immuno-suppressive,SPMs reduce inflamation and promote resolution without immunosuppression.

SPMs are not just for joint inflammation but emerging application include

  • Reduced allergic immune response
  • Reduced bone loss in peridonitits
  • Mitigated inflammation in endometriosis
  • Reduced inflammation in psoriatic dermatitis
  • Accelerate would healing
  • Alleviate inflammatory bowel disease