VLA Research

Background on Bioimpedance Analysis

Originally developed in the 1940’s by Dr Jan Nyboer to monitor fluid changes in limbs and organs, Bioimpedence analysis (BIA) technology was further developed for the measurement of Total Body Water in 1962, and researched extensively since then. The principles of BIA have been validated by hundreds of peer-reviewed papers and are well established.

BIA measurements are used to predict parameters such as Total Body Water, Fat Mass, Active Tissue Mass and Extracellular water levels. The ability to predict these values comes from the application of population-specific algorithms which have been developed by various researchers. These algorithms are validated against ‘gold standards’ for body composition assessment including:

·         Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA)

·         Hydrodensitometry

·         Isotope Dilution

·         Total Body Potassium

BIA has been shown to be accurate to within 2 to 3% of these tests (refer to Attachment  1).

BIA measures the key parameters of body composition – fat and lean tissue mass as well as measuring Total Body Water and fluid distribution which can be indicative of cellular health (refer to attachments 2 and 3).

Many institutions utilise BIA technology for various clinical assessments.

NASA uses BIA, as it provides a means to measure body composition during space flight.  It is useful to monitor this, as long-term space flight increases the risk of reduced human performance due to loss of body cell mass resulting from the combined effects of microgravity and energy imbalance.  Please see the following link:

http://lsda.jsc.nasa.gov/scripts/experiment/exper.cfm?exp_index=1249  (see attachment 4)

Department of Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, St. Marien-Hospital Borken, Am Boltenhof 7, D-46325 Borken, Germany. Has utilised the BIA with their geriatric patients:

http://geriatrics.researchtoday.net/archive/6/10/830.htm (see attachment 5)

The Division of Clinical Nutrition, Geneva University Hospital, Switzerland has found BIA to be useful in monitoring liver transplant patients: http://pen.sagepub.com/content/25/2/45.abstract (see attachment 6)

The Obesity Research Center in, St Luke's/Roosevelt Hospital, Columbia University considers BIA as useful in determining muscle mass in patients: http://pen.sagepub.com/content/23/2/96.abstract (see attachment 7).

For additional research discussing the concept of BIA refer to attachments 1, 8 and 9.

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Attachments:

1.       Kyle et al. Bioelectrical impedance analysis – part I: review of principles and methods. Clinical Nutrition. 2004; 23: 1226 – 1243

2.       Gupta D et al. Bioelectrical Impedance phase angle in clinical practice: implications for prognosis in stage IIIB and IV non-small cell lung cancer. BMC Cancer. 2009;9:37

3.       Gunn SM et al. Bioelectrical phase angle values in a clinical sample of ambulatory rehabilitation patients. Dynamic Medicine. 2008; 7:14

4.       NASA. Measurement of body composition for nutritional gravity [Internet] 2011 [cited 2011 Sept 24]. Available from: http://lsda.jsc.nasa.gov/scripts/experiment/exper.cfm?exp_index=1249

5.       Wirth R et al. Bioelectrical impedance phase angle is associated with hospital mortality in geriatric patients. 2010; 51(3): 290 – 4

6.       Kyle UG et al. Reliable bioelectrical impedance analysis estimate of fat-free mass in liver, lung and heart transplant patients. Journal of Parenteral & Enteral Nutrition. 2001; 25(2):45 – 51

7.       Nunez C et al. Bioimpedance analysis: potential for measuring lower limb skeletal muscle mass. 1999; 23(2): 96 – 103

8.       Kyle UG et al. Bioelectrical impedance analysis – part II: utilization in clinical practice. Clinical Nutrition. 2004; 23: 1430 – 1453

9.       De Lorenzo A et al. Predicting body cell mass with bioimpedance using theoretical methods: a technological review. Journal of Applied Physiology. 1997; 82: 1542 – 1558

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